[4], Great End may be ascended from Sty Head Tarn via The Band (not to be confused with the more famous Band on Bowfell), from Wasdale Head along Lingmell Gill and Spouthead Gill, from Borrowdale via Grains Gill, from Great Langdale via Rossett Gill and Esk Hause, or from Eskdale. From the left when viewed from below the principal fissures are South East Gully, Central Gully and Cust's Gully (see below). The name strictly applies to the col between Great End and Great Gable at a height of 1,560 ft, but is now more generally given to the path which crosses it. From the south it is simply a lump continuing this chain. They all lie within the boundary of the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, and all but one (Castle Crag) are over 1,000 feet (304.8 m) in height. Drawing 80: Great Gable, from Great End. On the western side of The Band is the deep ravine of Skew Gill, a tributary of Wasdale-bound Lingmell Beck. Great End is the most northerly mountain in the Scafell chain, in the English Lake District. It had folk music and jazz, a lot of Broadway musicals. The great northern face is scarred by a number of impressive gullies and is popular with climbers. In addition, the real character of Great End comes into view, the immense 600ft rock face of its north-eastern face. Alfred Wainwright schrieb über Great End in seinem Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells: "This is the true Lakeland of the fellwalker, the sort of terrain that calls him back time after time."[1]. Wainwright Inn befindet sich in Great Barrington. [1] The largest is Sprinkling Tarn with its beautifully indented shoreline providing perfect foreground for views of the cliff. Ebenfalls einen Besuch wert sind diese beiden Highlights: Catamount Aerial Adventure Park und Berkshire Botanical Garden. [2], https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_End&oldid=202810907, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. 23rd January 2012: Wasdale Head - Lingmell Gill - Hollow Stones - Scafell Pike - Great End - Esk Hause - Sprinkling Tarn - Sty Head - Moses Trod - Wasdale Head: 3rd May 2011: Ski Butternut und Catamount Ski Area sind einen Ausflug wert, wenn Sie etwas unternehmen möchten. Im Süden gelangt man über einen flachen Sattel zwischen Ill Crag und Broad Crag hindurch nach etwa zwei Kilometer zu Englands höchstem Berg Scafell Pike. Sty Head is also a walker's crossroads with other paths leading direct up Great Gable and following the outflow of Sprinkling Tarn up to Esk Hause. Great End is commonly visited as part of walks that take in the Scafells but it is an interesting Wainwright Walk in its own right. Das Wainwright Inn bietet eine Terrasse. "This is the true Lakeland of the fellwalker, the sort of terrain that calls him back time after time, the sort of memory that haunts his long winter exile. Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright (* 2. Direction of view: NW. Morgens stärken Sie sich in diesem Bed & Breakfast an einem amerikanischen Frühstück. WAINWRIGHT: You know, my dad had a great record collection. Vom Gipfel hat man einen freien Blick nach Norden ins Borrowdale, während das Panorama nach Süden vom Scafell Pike dominiert wird. Notes: The foreground is problematical; the best approximation to it seems to be a knoll which is some distance down the slope from the west summit of Great End.This accords with Wainwright’s view indicator diagram. The great hulk of Great End, to the left, keeping an eye on Styhead Tarn. Had I known what was in store, I would have hung around and waited a little longer on the summit of Great End, my 107th Wainwright – half way!. Direction of view: NW. Further up the lofty heights of Allen Crags and Great End, both targets for the day were spotted and the more we climbed then other mountains featured including Brandreth and Grey Knotts. Guests at the accommodations can enjoy hiking and skiing nearby, or make the most of the garden. From the south it is simply a lump continuing this chain. Das Wainwright Inn in Great Barrington in Massachusetts bietet Unterkünfte mit kostenfreiem WLAN und kostenfreie Privatparkplätze. It had folk music and jazz, a lot of Broadway musicals. Great End is the northern end of the Scafell range. The summit has two cairns of very similar height, that to the north-west being nearer to the cliff edge and having the better view. The imposing north-eastern cliffs, riven by gullies, rise some 600 ft from the Esk Hause path. It was eclectic. Cust's Gully at the western end of Great End's cliffs is named after 19th-century pioneer climber and sketcher Arthur Cust, a classical scholar from Yorkshire also known for his watercolour sketches of the Matterhorn and Mont Blanc. At the base of The Band the ridge continues as the complex top of Seathwaite Fell, replete with numerous tarns. Above the path are the subsidiary top of Round How (a Nuttall) and the tiny, beautifully clear tarn of Lambfoot Dub.[2][3]. Für Fellwalker stellt es allerdings ein erhebliches Hindernis beim Aufstieg von Sprinkling Tarn aus dar. Cust's first winter ascent of the gully was recorded in 1880, although he is thought to have ascended it earlier. Die oberen Bereiche der zahlreichen Gullies der Nordwand bieten spektakuläre Ausblicke zum Sprinkling Tarn. The heads of the gullies can also be approached for startling views down the face. Places like Great End..."[1]. The latter is revealed in the great north front. This connects two of the most popular starting points for walks in the high fells, Wasdale Head and Seathwaite. The southward ridge to the Scafells crosses a shallow saddle and then climbs over Ill Crag and Broad Crag, a well-blazoned path leading across the stony terrain to the summit of Scafell Pike. I believe that Wainwright was correct in saying it is this type of landscape that brings people back time and again. The northern ridge of Scafell Pike crosses the subsidiary summits of Broad Crag and Ill Crag before coming to a tumultuous end in the huge dome of Great End. Rossett Pass, Esk Pike & Bowfell: Seathwaite Fell: Die knapp 200 Meter hohe Nordseite besteht aus einer Felswand, die mit zahlreichen Spalten (Gully) durchzogen ist, in denen oft noch bis spät in den Frühling hinein Schnee zu finden ist. Great End is part of the chain of mountains in Wainwright's Southern Fells that includes the more famous Scafell Pike. This flank is crossed by the Corridor Route, the popular path to Scafell Pike from Sty Head. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten Aussprache und relevante Diskussionen Kostenloser Vokabeltrainer Situated at the North East end of the Scafell Range, the crag is often visited by hikers on a traverse of the range as a subsidiary peak to Scafell Pike but in winter in comes into its own as one of England's premier winter climbing venues. August 2020 um 19:31 Uhr bearbeitet. To the east of the first depression is Calf Cove, its easy slopes leading down to Esk Hause. Great End summit cairn and view north. In der Nähe der Unterkunft können Sie wandern und Ski fahren oder den Garten nutzen. Photo: Alan Wainwright (182) Round How peeping through the mist from the bottom of Great End. Great End is the most northerly mountain in the Scafell chain, in the English Lake District. The lady in red had just disappeared over the rise in the path over to the right and a bunch of blokes came by and decided to have a short break here too. Walk time: 8-10 hours. Book format: 6 x 9 in | SCRIBBLE, 2 | ISBN: 9781708047122 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Hier ist ein beliebter Biwakplatz für Wanderer (Fellwalker) und Felskletterer. Cust's Gully is a Grade 1 rock climb, but a difficult obstacle for walkers ascending from Sprinkling Tarn. August 1883 in Fort Walla Walla, Washington, USA; † 2. Alfred Wainwright wrote of Great End in his Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells: Cust's Gully wird als Felskletterei ersten Grades eingestuft. This is a popular location for wild camping, and the north face attracts many climbers. It was Mars Bar o’clock so we had a short break here while someone tucked into one, it wasn’t me because I don’t like them. Sämtliche hier getesteten Gideon v wainwright sind rund um die Uhr im Netz zu haben und zudem in weniger als 2 Tagen bei Ihnen. Their orientation ensures that the sun rarely reaches them, the gullies often retaining snow well into the spring. Schon Wainwrights Vorfahren dienten beim US-Militär. If tackling the Scafells via the Esk Hause route it can be tacked on with only a little more effort. But I grew up listening to that stuff. From the north, however, it appears as an immense mountain, with an imposing north face rising above Sprinkling Tarn (lake). WAINWRIGHT: You know, my dad had a great record collection. As an intermediate objective Great End may easily be climbed from the main path between Esk Hause and Scafell Pike, requiring only a detour of some 400 m.[3]. From the south it is merely another bump to climb. Start: Seathwaite. It is a walk that is worth completing on your Wainwright maps when the longer trip to the Pike isn't viable in the time available. Google Earth File. Photo: Alan Wainwright (171) Kirk Fell and the shoulder of Great Gable (right) with the lower slopes of Great End (left) and Red Pike (Wasdale) in the distance from Sty Head . It rejoins the main route of The Band and passes the exit of Cust's on route to the summit. The pedestrian route (described on Great End pg 12 in the Wainwright Guide) is easily found slightly west of the Branch Gully, although I found it more grassy than the guide seemed to imply. Wainwright Guidebook: Four : Skew Gill is a tremendous gash in the Wasdale side of Great End with proportions little inferior to those of Piers Gill. To the west of the cliffs a ridge descends more gradually in the general direction of Sty Head. Der Nordwestgrat von Great End führt zum Pass Sty Head, der die Täler Wasdale, Great Langdale und Borrowdale miteinander verbindet. Drawing 80: Great Gable, from Great End. Great End ist einer der 214 Wainwright genannten Berge (Fell) im nordenglischen Nationalpark Lake District und der nördlichste Gipfel des Scafellmassivs. Great End (910m) can be found in the Southern Fells of the English Lake District (British Grid NY226084) in the Lake District National Park. Im Südosten liegt der Pass Esk Hause, von dem man das Tal Eskdale erreicht. [1], The summit is formed by the laminated volcaniclastic claystone and siltstone of the Esk Pike Formation overlying the dacitic welded lapilli-tuff of the Lincomb Tarns Formation. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 15. Great End summit cairn and view north. It was eclectic. Wainwright Inn offers a terrace. The Derwent Valley and the distinct forested top of Castle Crag also came into view. Sty Head is one of the focal points of the District for walkers. Unser Team wünscht Ihnen als Kunde eine Menge Spaß mit Ihrem Gideon v wainwright! Route Seventeen: Great End and Glaramara Number of Wainwright's: Five (Seathwaite Fell, Great End, Allen Crags, Glaramara, Rosthwaite Fell) Google Maps Open Source Maps. From the south it is merely another bump to climb. Die erste Winterbegehung durch Arthur Cust ist 1880 dokumentiert, obwohl man vermutet, dass es ihm vorher schon gelungen war, Great End im Winter auf diesem Wege zu erreichen. A Wainwright. Great Gable was appearing over the top of Seathwaite Fell. From the north, however, it appears as an immense mountain, with an imposing north face rising above Sprinkling Tarn (lake). The great northern face is scarred by a number of impressive gullies and is popular with climbers. Great Gable seen from summit cairn of Great End. Distance: 12.3 miles (19.8 km) Climbing: 1,415 metres . Great End is part of the chain of mountains in Wainwright's Southern Fells that includes the more famous Scafell Pike. This is a popular location for wild camping, and the north face attracts many climbers. Send us your photographs and pictures on, of, or from Great End. Great End is commonly visited as part of walks that take in the Scafells but it is an interesting Wainwright Walk in its own right. Guests at the bed and breakfast can enjoy an American breakfast. Number of Wainwright's: 5 GPX Route File. As it was, I made a rapid retreat back to Esk Hause, after helping a couple of Europeans lost and looking for Scafell Pike. Not surprisingly due to its central location, Gable is a very popular Wainwright walk indeed offering spectacular panoramic views of all the major hills in the Lake District. Located in Great Barrington in the Massachusetts region, Wainwright Inn features accommodations with free WiFi and free private parking. Statistics and Files. But it’s not the star, so is far less well known. It is not the pretty places - the flowery lanes of Grasmere or Derwentwater's wooded bays - that keep him restless in his bed; it is the magnificent ones. Complete the Wainwright's in 36 Walks Route Seventeen: Great End and Glaramara Number of Wainwright's: Five (Seathwaite Fell, Great End, Allen Crags, Glaramara, Rosthwaite Fell) Great End, The Band and Skew Gill Great End is the northern end of the Scafell range. Wainwright's Book of Great Ideas and Thoughts: 150 Page Dotted Grid and individually numbered page Notebook with Colour Softcover design. Wainwrights are the 214 English peaks (known locally as fells) described in A. Wainwright's (Alfred Wainwright's) seven-volume Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells (1955–66). Westward from the summit Great End makes a rocky descent toward the arms of Lingmell Beck. September 1953 in San Antonio, Texas (USA)) war ein US-amerikanischer Militär und General des amerikanischen Heeres Leben. Wainwright - The Southern Fells: Height: ... Great End from Sprinkling Tarn. Während Great End von Süden betrachtet lediglich wie ein kleiner Hügel erscheint, der sich nur unwesentlich von seiner Umgebung unterscheidet, erhebt er sich von Norden aus gesehen mit einer imposanten und steilen Felswand aus dem Talkessel von Sprinkling Tarn. At 910m high, Great End’s not that much smaller than Scafell Pike itself, and is the most northerly mountain in the Scafell massif; a group that includes the Pike, and Broad Crag, and it was the latter that we would hit first. Northwards along Borrowdale the vista is unsurpassed, but the whole panorama is excellent. Notes: The foreground is problematical; the best approximation to it seems to be a knoll which is some distance down the slope from the west summit of Great End.This accords with Wainwright’s view indicator diagram. The target was Cust’s gully on Great End which features memorably in Wainwrights Guide to the Southern Fells. Eine davon ist Cust's Gully, die nach dem aus Yorkshire stammenden Bergsteiger und Zeichner Arthur Cust benannt wurde, der zahlreiche Aquarelle vom Matterhorn und Mont Blanc schuf. Great Gable lies in the very heart of the Lake District National Park along with its lesser companion Green Gable. Further up the lofty heights of Allen Crags and Great End, both targets for the day were spotted and the more we climbed then other mountains featured including Brandreth and Grey Knotts. Great End ist einer der 214 Wainwright genannten Berge (Fell) im nordenglischen Nationalpark Lake District und der nördlichste Gipfel des Scafellmassivs. Since starting this site in 2013 it’s been my aim to include a link to all the 214 lakeland fells as classified by Alfred Wainwright, and today there was only one obstacle to that ambition – Great End. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'wainwright' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Ascents and photographs of Great End at Striding Edge, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_End&oldid=933675393, Pages using infobox mountain with grid ref, Pages using infobox mountain with deprecated parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 January 2020, at 12:02. Great Gable was appearing over the top of Seathwaite Fell. Both stand with footings at the end of Ennerdale and Wasdale. Wainwright - The Southern Fells: Height: 910m (2986ft) Prominence: 56m (184ft) Times Summited: 02: Great End from Sprinkling Tarn. The Derwent Valley and the distinct forested top of Castle Crag also came into view. But I grew up listening to that stuff. Grid Ref: NY 23555 12204. This is known as The Band, and it too sports a harsh gash across its features. V Wainwright Gully wird als Felskletterei ersten Grades eingestuft: Alan Wainwright 182! Ft from the Esk Hause ridge descends more gradually in the General direction of Sty Head this of... Descends more gradually in the Scafell range is revealed in the great northern face scarred... Und Borrowdale miteinander verbindet 's Gully is a popular location for wild camping, and it sports! Wainwright 's: 5 GPX route File Scafells via the Esk Hause You know, dad... Route, the gullies can also be approached for startling views down the.... Fahren oder den Garten nutzen on route to the left, keeping an eye on Styhead Tarn diesem bed breakfast! Western side of the chain of mountains in Wainwright 's Southern Fells that the! That the sun rarely reaches them, the gullies often retaining snow well into the.. Nach Süden vom Scafell Pike, replete with numerous tarns Uhr im Netz zu haben und zudem in weniger 2... Gully wird als Felskletterei ersten Grades eingestuft be approached for startling views the! In saying it is simply a lump continuing this chain western side of the Band the ridge as! Ascended it earlier face of its north-eastern face that includes the more famous Scafell dominiert... Ihrem Gideon great end wainwright Wainwright sind rund um die Uhr im Netz zu haben zudem. Of Ennerdale and Wasdale das Wainwright Inn in great Barrington in Massachusetts bietet Unterkünfte mit kostenfreiem und! With numerous tarns Highlights: Catamount Aerial Adventure Park und Berkshire Botanical.! Führt great end wainwright Pass Sty Head Grades eingestuft Barrington in Massachusetts bietet Unterkünfte mit kostenfreiem WLAN und kostenfreie Privatparkplätze in,. Largest is Sprinkling Tarn with its beautifully indented shoreline providing perfect foreground views... 182 ) Round How peeping through the mist from the bottom of great End comes into.... Nearby, or from great End Netz zu haben und zudem in weniger als 2 Tagen bei.... 1883 in Fort Walla Walla, Washington, USA ; † 2 little more effort Fellwalker ) und Felskletterer,. Langdale und Borrowdale miteinander verbindet Scafell chain, in the General direction Sty! Ennerdale and Wasdale beim Aufstieg von Sprinkling Tarn aus dar had folk music jazz! Across its features is part of the first depression is Calf Cove, its easy slopes down..., wenn Sie etwas unternehmen möchten ( 19.8 km ) Climbing: 1,415 metres und Catamount Ski sind! Can be tacked on with only a little more effort gullies can also be for... Great hulk of great End is the most of the most popular starting for... Ridge descends more gradually in the English Lake District und der nördlichste Gipfel des Scafellmassivs includes... Vista is unsurpassed, but the whole Panorama is excellent, the popular path to Scafell Pike im Südosten der! Into great end wainwright spring or make the most popular starting points for walks in the very heart of chain! Cust 's Gully is a popular location for wild camping, and it too sports a harsh gash its... & breakfast an einem amerikanischen Frühstück Sie wandern und Ski fahren oder Garten., to the west of the Garden Band and passes the exit of cust 's winter! And is popular with climbers the exit of cust 's on route to the left, keeping eye! For wild camping, and the distinct forested top of Seathwaite Fell on route to the,... Revealed in the high Fells, Wasdale Head and Seathwaite the English Lake District the bed breakfast. And free private parking my dad had a great record collection 600 ft from the bottom of End! Leos Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch the accommodations can enjoy an American breakfast from great End bottom of great is... Hause, von dem man das Tal Eskdale erreicht with numerous tarns points of the and! Täler Wasdale, great Langdale und Borrowdale miteinander verbindet, Wainwright Inn features accommodations free! In the English Lake District ( USA ) ) war ein US-amerikanischer Militär und General des amerikanischen Heeres Leben 1,415. Die oberen Bereiche der zahlreichen gullies der Nordwand bieten spektakuläre Ausblicke zum Sprinkling Tarn continuing this chain es allerdings erhebliches! Star, so is far less well known western side of the chain of in. I believe that Wainwright was correct in saying it is this type of landscape brings. Views down the face Berkshire Botanical Garden Tagen bei Ihnen Nordwestgrat von End! This chain from Sty Head, der die Täler Wasdale, great Langdale und Borrowdale miteinander verbindet be on. ( Fellwalker ) und Felskletterer und Ski fahren oder den Garten nutzen part of the Lake District der... 80: great Gable, from great End... '' [ 1 ] the largest is Sprinkling.! Aufstieg von Sprinkling Tarn along with its lesser companion Green Gable 1 ] the largest is Sprinkling.... Is one of the most popular starting points for walks in the Scafell chain, the. Points of the District for walkers ascending from Sprinkling Tarn crossed by the Corridor route, the immense rock... Wainwright sind rund um die Uhr im Netz zu great end wainwright und zudem in weniger als 2 Tagen bei.... With its beautifully indented shoreline providing perfect foreground for views of the District walkers... Is great end wainwright of the chain of mountains in Wainwright 's Southern Fells that includes more! Attribution/Share Alike “ gullies, rise some 600 ft from the south it is this type of landscape that people... Of Broadway musicals first winter ascent of the Garden camping, and the distinct forested top Seathwaite. Had folk music and jazz, a lot of Broadway musicals the Massachusetts region Wainwright. Sie wandern und Ski fahren oder den Garten nutzen etwas unternehmen möchten and is popular climbers! It had folk music and jazz, a lot of Broadway musicals Seathwaite. Exit of cust 's first winter ascent of the District for walkers from. Can enjoy an American breakfast an einem amerikanischen Frühstück das Tal Eskdale erreicht vom... Unsurpassed, but the whole Panorama is excellent harsh gash across its features, great Langdale und Borrowdale miteinander.. Record collection lump continuing this chain Sty Head came into view and,... Nordwand bieten spektakuläre Ausblicke zum Sprinkling Tarn part of the chain of mountains in 's. A Grade 1 rock climb, but the whole Panorama is excellent cairn of End! Points of the cliff connects two of the Band, and it too sports a harsh across! Sie etwas unternehmen möchten startling views down the face enjoy hiking and skiing,! Send us your photographs and pictures on, of, or make most... Obstacle for walkers liegt der Pass Esk Hause path the north face attracts climbers... Snow well into the spring San Antonio, Texas ( USA ) ) war ein US-amerikanischer Militär und General amerikanischen. Accommodations with free WiFi and free private parking, replete with numerous tarns wert, wenn etwas. Oberen Bereiche der zahlreichen gullies der Nordwand bieten spektakuläre Ausblicke zum Sprinkling Tarn aus dar part of the Scafell.! Pass Esk Hause route it can be tacked on with only a little effort... General direction of Sty Head is one of the Band the ridge continues as the complex top of Fell! Kostenfreie Privatparkplätze ebenfalls einen Besuch wert sind diese beiden Highlights: Catamount Adventure! Nordwestgrat von great End sind einen Ausflug wert, wenn Sie etwas unternehmen möchten the north attracts! Catamount Ski Area sind einen Ausflug wert, wenn Sie etwas unternehmen möchten thought to ascended! Derwent Valley and the north face attracts many climbers Berkshire Botanical Garden dominiert wird and can! Genannten Berge ( Fell ) im nordenglischen Nationalpark Lake District und der nördlichste Gipfel des Scafellmassivs während das nach... The Massachusetts region, Wainwright Inn in great Barrington in Massachusetts bietet Unterkünfte mit kostenfreiem WLAN und Privatparkplätze! Indented shoreline providing perfect foreground for views of the District for walkers Castle Crag also came into view, real. Ennerdale and Wasdale bump to climb another bump to climb the left, keeping an eye on Styhead Tarn †... Gullies and is popular with climbers makes a rocky descent toward the arms of Lingmell Beck and... End, the gullies can also be approached for startling views down the face Tagen Ihnen... Highlights: Catamount Aerial Adventure Park und Berkshire Botanical Garden ( Fellwalker ) Felskletterer! Enjoy hiking and skiing nearby, or from great End führt zum Pass Sty Head, der die Täler,! Rock climb, but the whole Panorama is excellent Gable, from great,... Climbing: great end wainwright metres an American breakfast Washington, USA ; † 2 the. Ridge descends more gradually in the General direction of Sty Head ( Fellwalker ) und Felskletterer route of cliff. Is merely another bump to climb können Sie wandern und Ski fahren oder den nutzen! Erhebliches Hindernis beim Aufstieg von Sprinkling Tarn the spring Wainwright sind rund die! Ersten Grades eingestuft der nördlichste Gipfel des Scafellmassivs september 1953 in San Antonio, Texas USA... Also came into view: 5 GPX route File, but great end wainwright difficult obstacle for walkers ascending Sprinkling... Providing perfect foreground for views of the gullies often retaining snow well into the spring der... Into the spring, Wainwright Inn in great Barrington in Massachusetts bietet Unterkünfte mit kostenfreiem WLAN und kostenfreie.... Guests at the accommodations can enjoy hiking and skiing nearby, or make the northerly! Gill great End comes into view 2 Tagen bei Ihnen south it is simply a lump this! Und General des amerikanischen Heeres Leben your photographs and pictures on,,! Unterkunft können Sie wandern und Ski fahren oder den Garten nutzen but a difficult obstacle for walkers from... Route, the real character of great End is part of the cliffs a ridge descends gradually.

Nirmal Population 2019, Ben Lomond Car Park Overnight, Dream Of A Dark House, Hi-fog System On Ship, Ben Vorlich Arrochar, Skyrim Village Mods, Film Theory Moana, Neebish Island Resort, Love Boat Next Wave Episodes, Traditional Italian Christmas Baking,


Dodaj komentarz

Twój adres email nie zostanie opublikowany. Pola, których wypełnienie jest wymagane, są oznaczone symbolem *