When he drank, he had wild mood swings, ranging from euphoria to frenzy. He built poems: he didn't put in the seed, and water the seed, and send down his sun—letting the rest take care of itself: he measured his poems—kept them within formula. Omissions? [15], In late 1839, Lowell met Maria White through her brother William, a classmate at Harvard,[16] and the two became engaged in the autumn of 1840. [29] Lowell wrote that it would "furnish the intelligent and reflecting portion of the Reading Public with a rational substitute for the enormous quantity of thrice-diluted trash, in the shape of namby-pamby love tales and sketches, which is monthly poured out to them by many of our popular Magazines. The year 1848 also saw the publication of Lowell’s two other most important pieces of writing: The Vision of Sir Launfal, an enormously popular long poem extolling the brotherhood of man; and A Fable for Critics, a witty and rollicking verse evaluation of contemporary American authors. In using this vernacular, Lowell intended to get closer to the common man's experience and was rebelling against more formal and, as he thought, unnatural representations of Americans in literature. Abolitionist Samuel Joseph May accused him of trying to quit the movement because of his association with Harvard and the Boston Brahmin culture: "Having got into the smooth, dignified, self-complacent, and change-hating society of the college and its Boston circles, Lowell has gone over to the world, and to 'respectability'. "[133] In the twentieth century, poet Richard Armour dismissed Lowell, writing: "As a Harvard graduate and an editor for the Atlantic Monthly, it must have been difficult for Lowell to write like an illiterate oaf, but he succeeded. East Louisville Quadrangle (7.5) Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinates: 16 609500 4227200 He gained notoriety in 1848 with the publication of A Fable for Critics, a book-length poem satirizing contemporary critics and poets. Get ready for your James Russell Lowell tests by reviewing key facts, theories, examples, synonyms and definitions with study sets created by students like you. The book, dedicated to Norton, collected poems Lowell had written within the previous twenty years and was his first poetry collection since 1848. Even so, he wrote, "We believe the white race, by their intellectual and traditional superiority, will retain sufficient ascendancy to prevent any serious mischief from the new order of things. However, in 1857, surprising his friends, he became engaged to Frances Dunlap, whom many described as simple and unattractive. [26] Just before her burial, her coffin was opened so that her daughter Mabel could see her face while Lowell "leaned for a long while against a tree weeping", according to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and his wife, who were in attendance. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The letter from James Russell Lowell Elementary School, at 3320 W. Hirsch St. in the Humboldt Park neighborhood, reads: “Dear Teacher/Staff Welcome Back (sic) to Lowell School. From 1845 to 1850 he wrote about 50 antislavery articles for periodicals. [88] Lowell was well-prepared for his political role, having been trained in law, as well as being able to read in multiple languages. "[62] Still grieving the loss of his wife, during this time Lowell avoided Elmwood and instead lived on Kirkland Street in Cambridge, an area known as Professors' Row. "[20] William Wetmore Story noted the journal's higher taste, writing that "it took some stand & appealled to a higher intellectual Standard than our puerile milk or watery namby-pamby Mags with which we are overrun". [96], He returned to the United States by June 1885, living with his daughter and her husband in Southboro, Massachusetts. [87] The Spanish media referred to him as "José Bighlow". [9] He was suspended, however, and not allowed to participate. [135] Modern literary critic Van Wyck Brooks wrote that Lowell's poetry was forgettable: "one read them five times over and still forgot them, as if this excellent verse had been written in water. He continued to teach at Harvard for twenty years. The same year, he published The Biglow Papers, which increased his fame. James Russell Lowell was born February 22, 1819. [138], American poet, critic, editor, and diplomat. "[68] Shortly thereafter, in May, he left The Atlantic Monthly when James T. Fields took over as editor; the magazine had been purchased by Ticknor and Fields for $10,000 two years before. [93] Lowell held this role until the close of Chester A. Arthur's presidency in the spring of 1885, despite his wife's failing health. He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets who rivaled the popularity of British poets. James Russell Lowell was born February 22, 1819. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 1. Instead, his poem was printed and made available thanks to subscriptions paid by his classmates. James Russell Lowell photographed by Mathew Brady circa 1855-1865 In a society like ours, where every man may transmute his private thought into history and destiny by dropping it into the ballot-box, a peculiar responsibility rests upon the individual. Even more effective in this regard were his Biglow Papers, which he began to serialize June 17, 1846, and the first series of which were collected in book form in 1848. "[58], He returned to the United States in the summer of 1856 and began his college duties. [6] Lowell's mother built in him an appreciation for literature at an early age, especially in poetry, ballads, and tales from her native Orkney. Emerson referred to his poem's "high thought & sentiment" and James Freeman Clarke noted its "grandeur of tone". [93] Lowell also befriended Leslie Stephen many years earlier and became the godfather to his daughter, future writer Virginia Woolf. [26], Lowell's earliest poems were published without remuneration in the Southern Literary Messenger in 1840. [90], In January 1880, Lowell was informed of his appointment as Minister to England, his nomination made without his knowledge as far back as June 1879. James Russell Lowell (; February 22, 1819 – August 12, 1891) was an American Romantic poet, critic, editor, and diplomat.He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets who rivaled the popularity of British poets. In May 1877, President Hayes, an admirer of The Biglow Papers, sent William Dean Howells to Lowell with a handwritten note proffering an ambassadorship to either Austria or Russia; Lowell declined, but noted his interest in Spanish literature. These and other critical essays were collected in the two series of Among My Books (1870, 1876). [20] The periodical was distinguished by the fact that most of its content was new rather than material that had been previously published elsewhere, and by the inclusion of very serious criticism, which covered not only literature but also art and music. Even Deity is subjected to chemical tests.-James Russell Lowell. [104] He died on August 12, 1891, at Elmwood. Lowell wrote a second series of Biglow Papers for the Atlantic Monthly that were devoted to Unionism and that were collected in book form in 1867. View the list Pray as though everything depended on God. [129], Contemporary critic and editor Margaret Fuller wrote, "his verse is stereotyped; his thought sounds no depth, and posterity will not remember him. In 1855 his lectures on English poets before the Lowell Institute led to his appointment as Smith professor of modern languages at Harvard University, succeeding Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. [56] Abroad, he visited Le Havre, Paris, and London, spending time with friends including Story, Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and Leigh Hunt. [59] Towards the end of his professorship, then-president of Harvard Charles William Eliot noted that Lowell seemed to have "no natural inclination" to teach; Lowell agreed, but retained his position for twenty years. While overseas, he received an honorary Doctorate of Law from the University of Oxford and another from Cambridge University. [108] He composed his poetry rapidly when inspired by an "inner light" but could not write to order. [44], His wife Maria, who had been suffering from poor health for many years, became very ill in the spring of 1853 and died on October 27[45] of tuberculosis. M.L. [105] After services in the Appleton Chapel, he was buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery. James Russell Lowell (n.22 februarie 1819 - d. 12 august 1891) a fost un poet, critic literar și diplomat american, care a aparținut grupării literare Fireside Poets.. A scris o lirică satirică, în care militează pentru aboliționism și susține cauza nordiștilor în războiul civil.A scris și poezii romantice în maniera lui John Keats și William Wordsworth. [12], Lowell did not know what vocation to choose after graduating, and he vacillated among business, the ministry, medicine, and law. [125], In 1849, Lowell said of himself, "I am the first poet who has endeavored to express the American Idea, and I shall be popular by and by. After only one year, he was asked to contribute half as often to the Standard to make room for contributions from Edmund Quincy, another writer and reformer. He attended William Wells School and Harvard University, where he graduated with a degree in law. The totality of his work, though brilliant in parts, ultimately suffers from a lack of focus and a failure to follow up on his undoubted early successes. [38] The book presented three main characters, each representing different aspects of American life and using authentic American dialects in their dialogue. [85] Hayes won the nomination and, eventually, the presidency. Yellin, Jean Fagan. [54] His first lecture was on John Milton and the auditorium was oversold; Lowell had to give a repeat performance the next afternoon. "I did not make the hit I expected", he wrote, "and am ashamed at having been tempted again to think I could write poetry, a delusion from which I have been tolerably free these dozen years. [98] By this time, most of his friends were dead, including Quincy, Longfellow, Dana, and Emerson, leaving him depressed and contemplating suicide again. [17], Maria's character and beliefs led her to become involved in the movements directed against intemperance and slavery. [120] The couple often gave money to fugitive slaves, even when their own financial situation was not strong, especially if they were asked to free a spouse or child. God, give us Peace! James Russell Lowell: Fireside Travels; Ambition. These books, together with the publication that year of the second series of his Poems, made Lowell the most popular new figure in American literature. They think them unwholesome unless they are swallowed, stones and all. His essays such as “E Pluribus Unum” and “Washers of the Shroud” (1862) also reflect his thought at this time. [118] Even before his marriage to abolitionist Maria White, Lowell wrote: "The abolitionists are the only ones with whom I sympathize of the present extant parties. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The death of three of Lowell’s children was followed by the death of his wife in 1853. He attempted to emulate the true Yankee accent in the dialogue of his characters, particularly in The Biglow Papers. They visited England, Paris, Switzerland, and Italy. James Russell Lowell was born February 22, 1819, the son of the Reverend Charles Russell Lowell, Sr. (1782–1861), a minister at a Unitarian church in Boston who had previously studied theology at Edinburgh, and Harriett Brackett Spence Lowell. He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets who rivaled the popularity of British poets. James Russell Lowell: Poetry essays are academic essays for citation. Enjoy the best James Russell Lowell Quotes at BrainyQuote. [70] Lowell's reviews for the journal covered a wide variety of literary releases of the day, though he was writing fewer poems. [64] Dunlap, niece of the former governor of Maine Robert P. Dunlap,[65] was a friend of Lowell's first wife and formerly wealthy, though she and her family had fallen into reduced circumstances. After the American Civil War he expressed his devotion to the Union cause in four memorial odes, the best of which is “Ode Recited at the Harvard Commemoration” (1865). "[77] Despite his personal assessment, friends and other poets sent many letters to Lowell congratulating him. [83] Lowell and his wife set sail on July 8, 1872,[84] after he took a leave of absence from Harvard. His friend Edward Everett Hale denied these allegations. Edgar Allan Poe was referred to as part genius and "two-fifths sheer fudge"; he reviewed the work in the Southern Literary Messenger and called it "'loose'—ill-conceived and feebly executed, as well in detail as in general ... we confess some surprise at his putting forth so unpolished a performance. Essays for James Russell Lowell: Poetry. Lowell graduated from Harvard College in 1838, despite his reputation as a troublemaker, and went on to earn a law degree from Harvard Law School. [69] Lowell returned to Elmwood by January 1861 but maintained an amicable relationship with the new owners of the journal, continuing to submit his poetry and prose for the rest of his life. "Hawthorne and the Slavery Question". Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this James Russell Lowell study guide. Truth. [97] He then spent time in Boston with his sister before returning to Elmwood in November 1889. [122] Enemies and friends of Lowell alike questioned his vacillating interest in the question of slavery. The Use of Nature and Emotion in Romantic Literature: Readings from Lowell… James Russell Lowell, poet, essayist, diplomatist, and scholar, was born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, on February 22, 1819, the son of a Unitarian minister. "[130] Evert Augustus Duyckinck thought Lowell was too similar to other poets like William Shakespeare and John Milton. Corrections? Analysis is carried into everything. He wrote a series on "Anti-Slavery in the United States" for the Daily News, though his series was discontinued by the editors after four articles in May 1846. Guv'ment aint to answer to it, Bio: James Russell Lowell was an American Romantic poet, critic, editor, and diplomat. The majority of these people, he said, "treat ideas as ignorant persons do cherries. He said that his first book of poetry A Year's Life (1841) "owes all its beauty to her", though it only sold 300 copies. Feb 4, 2014 - TRIVIA: Walt Whitman: "Lowell was not a grower—he was a builder. The Use of Nature and Emotion in Romantic Literature: Readings from Lowell… [66] Lowell wrote, "My second marriage was the wisest act of my life, & as long as I am sure of it, I can afford to wait till my friends agree with me. [110] Unlike many of his contemporaries, including members of Young America, Lowell did not advocate for the creation of a new national literature. [68] His prose, however, was more abundantly presented in the pages of the North American Review during the years 1862–1872. Beauty Future Dreams Believe. [63], Lowell had intended never to remarry after the death of his wife Maria White. [49] On March 10, 1854, for example, he wrote: "Dark without & within. He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets who rivaled the […] Lowell was the archetypal New England man of letters, remarkable for his cultivation and charm, his deep learning, and his varied literary talents. [9] In his last year there, he wrote, "During Freshman year, I did nothing, during Sophomore year I did nothing, during Junior year I did nothing, and during Senior year I have thus far done nothing in the way of college studies. Early in his career, James Russell Lowell's writing was influenced by Swedenborgianism, a Spiritualism-infused form of Christianity founded by Emanuel Swedenborg, causing Frances Longfellow (wife of the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow) to mention that "he has been long in the habit of seeing spirits". Lowell was elected the poet of the class of 1838[11] and, as was tradition, was asked to recite an original poem on Class Day, the day before Commencement on July 17, 1838. [21] James had previously expressed antislavery sentiments, but Maria urged him towards more active expression and involvement. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The couple had several children, though only one survived past childhood. [116], Lowell was an abolitionist, but his opinions wavered concerning African-Americans. [32] He had published these articles anonymously, believing that they would have more impact if they were not known to be the work of a committed abolitionist. "[8] In his senior year, he became one of the editors of Harvardiana literary magazine, to which he contributed prose and poetry that he admitted was of low quality. He ultimately enrolled at Harvard Law School in 1840 and was admitted to the bar two years later. [29] He agreed with his neighbor Longfellow that "whoever is most universal, is also most national". His last few months, he was administered opium for the pain and was rarely fully conscious. "[116] Lowell's satires and use of dialect were an inspiration for writers like Mark Twain, William Dean Howells, H. L. Mencken, and Ring Lardner. James Russell Lowell Laid At Rest. [61] He summed up his method: "True scholarship consists in knowing not what things exists, but what they mean; it is not memory but judgment. Lowell". "[73] His interest in the Civil War inspired him to write a second series of The Biglow Papers,[68] including one specifically dedicated to the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation called "Sunthin' in the Pastoral Line" in 1862. "[123], Lowell was also involved in other reform movements. His grief over the death of his first daughter in particular was expressed in his poem "The First Snowfall" (1847). [41] To pay for the trip, Lowell sold land around Elmwood, intending to sell off further acres of the estate over time to supplement his income, ultimately selling off 25 of the original 30 acres (120,000 m2). [35], In 1848, Lowell also published The Biglow Papers, later named by the Grolier Club as the most influential book of 1848. [114] For example, Lowell's character Hosea Biglow says in verse: Ef you take a sword an' dror it, He wrote to a friend that death "is a private tutor. Even so, he wrote, "If the destruction of slavery is to be a consequence of the war, shall we regret it? [13] During his stay in Concord, he became friends with Ralph Waldo Emerson and got to know the other Transcendentalists. "[134] The poet Amy Lowell featured her relative James Russell Lowell in her poem A Critical Fable (1922), the title mocking A Fable for Critics. He wrote his finest works before he was 30 years old, however, and most of his subsequent writings lack vitality. Here, a fictional version of Lowell says he does not believe that women will ever be equal to men in the arts and "the two sexes cannot be ranked counterparts". As he said later, "I was as great an ass as ever brayed & thought it singing. With its first issue in November of that year, he at once gave the magazine the stamp of high literature and of bold speech on public affairs. [98] His last few years he traveled back to England periodically[101] and when he returned to the United States in the fall of 1889, he moved back to Elmwood[102] with Mabel, while her husband worked for clients in New York and New Jersey. In these satirical verses, Lowell uses a humorous and original New England dialect to express his opposition to the Mexican War as an attempt to extend the area of slavery. Quotations by James Russell Lowell, American Poet, Born February 22, 1819. For the Review, he served as a coeditor along with Charles Eliot Norton. James Russell Lowell Quotes. After a yearlong visit to Italy and Germany in 1855–56 to study, he held this professorship for the next 20 years. It proved a popular satire, and the first 3,000 copies sold out quickly. He was a highly influential man of letters in his day, but his reputation declined in the 20th century. He published his first collection of poetry in 1841 and married Maria White in 1844. KY-229 Location: Present Owner: • Present Occupant: Present Use: Statement of Significance: 4501 Crittenden Drive Louisville Jefferson County Kentucky U.S.G.S. He spent his last years in Cambridge in the same estate where he was born, and died there in 1891. Get all the lyrics to songs by James Russell Lowell and join the Genius community of music scholars to learn the meaning behind the lyrics. [112] He used this interest in his writing, particularly in The Biglow Papers, presenting a heavily ungrammatical phonetic spelling of the Yankee dialect,[26] a method called eye dialect. Plenty, villains, not so many the year sent many letters to Lowell as `` the very of... Cambridge in the two series of Among My Books ; Adversity editor, and Italy killing! 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